Filomena Mazzeo*, Domenico Tafuri**


*Department of Science and Technology, University of Naples “Parthenope”, Italy - **Department of Sport Sciences and Wellness, Parthenope University, Naples, Italy


The aim of this study was to examine the use of hormone and metabolic modulators (SARMs), that have the same effects of androgenic anabolic drugs and the use of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) as estrogen receptor agonists or antagonists. Examples of substances in this class include tamoxifen and clomiphene. In sport, this drugs are used  by athletes as performance-enhancing drugs to stimulate anabolism, improve the strength and enhance muscle mass. These drugs are banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency and have negative side effects but not more of anabolic agents as testosterone and steroids. 

The WADA list comprises a total of 10 different classes of banned substances (S0– S9), three different groups of prohibited methods (M1–M3), and two classes of drugs (P1 and P2). The latter are banned from selected sports only. We have analysed the doping’s spread in Italy about S4 classes of substances since 2005. The data come from the databases of government and sports Italians institutions. The data show, in the last years, an moderate increase of utilize of this classes of drugs as performance-enhancing drugs. 


hormone and metabolic modulators, combined pill and progestogen only pill, sport, drugs.