Girolamo Di Maio*, Vincenzo Monda*, Antonietta Messina*, Rita Polito**,#, Marcellino Monda*, Nicola Tartaglia***, Antonio Ambrosio***, Daniela Pisanelli****, Alessio Asmundo*****, Nunzio Di Nunno******, Alberto Ametta*******, Ines Villano*, Vincenzo Cristian Francavilla********


*Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Physiology and Unit of Dietetic and Sport Medicine, Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Napoli, Italy - **Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy - ***Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy - ****Riuniti Hospital, Foggia, Italy - *****Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences, and Morphological and Functional Images, Section of Legal Medicine,University of Messina, Messina, Italy - ******University of Salento, Lecce, Italy - *******Department of Economy, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy - ********School of Engineering, Architecture, and Motor Sciences, Kore University of Enna, Enna, Italy


Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MS) includes a various factors such as hyperglycemia, high blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia that predispose individuals to the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Furthermore, MS is strongly associated with obesity, indeed, it is well know that abdominal and/or visceral adipose tissue accumulation is a contributory cause of MS development. These diseases are associated with multiple metabolic toxicities resulting from the oxidative stress, which are the product of reactive oxygen species. In this scenario, a corrected nutrition and adequate physical activity are important measures against MS, obesity, aging and prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. In this regards, the healthy lifestyle, and in particular correct physical activity, represents one the epigenetic strategies against MS, having beneficial and anti-inflammatory effects, reducing the production of free radicals and the risk to development cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. The aim of this review is to discuss on physical activity and its role in modification of lyfestile inducing beneficial effect on health status.

Material and method: We performed a data literature analysis from PubMed. We analyze data from multiple studies reporting that physical activity decreases body adiposity and the physical exercise reduces the fat mass in a dose dependent. Physical activity decreases abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat indipendently of changes in dietary energy intake in healthy, overweight and obese man and women, suggesting that training is critical in the treatment, or prevention, of MS. Also, it induces the expression of a many genes involved in the repair of cellular damage and reduces the expression of genes involved in the mechanisms of oxidative stress and inflammation, activating numerous metabolic pathways and down-regulating the production of mediators of inflammation and ROS production. 

Conclusion: the physical activity can be an efficient therapeutic approach in MS, promoting weight loss in obesity and reducing cardiovascular disease and diabetes risks.


Metabolic syndrome (MS), obesity, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, physical exercise, healthy lifestyle.