ACTA MEDICA MEDITERRANEA journal is retracting this paper following on concerns raised by the Journal Owner, Mister Carmelo Pennino, the manager of Carbone Editore company. After an internal investigation that involved all Section Editors, the journal owner detected a suspected misconduct in terms of self-citations activity. The link of the retracted article http://www.actamedicamediterranea.com/archive/2017/medica-1/life-events-and-primary-monosymptomatic-nocturnal-enuresis-a-pediatric-pilot-study/pdf
LUCIA PARISI*, MARIA ANTONIETTA FARALDO**, MARIA RUBERTO***, MARGHERITA SALERNO****, AGATA MALTESE*, ANNABELLA DI
FOLCO*, GIOVANNI MESSINA*****, TERESA DI FILIPPO*, MICHELE ROCCELLA*
*Department of Psychological, Pedagogical and Educational Sciences, University of Palermo, Italy - **Clinic of Child and Adolescent
Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health and Physical and Preventive Medicine; Second University of Naples, Italy -
***Department of Medical-Surgical and Dental Specialties, Second University of Naples, Italy - ****Sciences for Mother and Child Health
Promotion, University of Palermo, Italy - *****Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Physiology and Unit of Dietetics
and Sports Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy
*Lucia Parisi, Maria Antonietta Faraldo and Maria Ruberto equally contributed to the manuscript
Introduction: The association between primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) and behavioral disorders was highlighted frequently, suggesting psychiatric origin. On the other hand, there is no difference between the incidence of mental disor- ders in children with PMNE and controls, although the psychological genesis could provide additional secondary forms, in which the child might react to stressful events with the resumption of involuntary urination at night, with a possible alteration of bowel control due to a high vulnerability to stressors.
The purpose of this study is assessing the stressful events of life in a sample of children with PMNE.
Materials and methods: 56 subjects with PMNE, (37 males and 19 females) (mean 10.87 years; SD ± 1.68) were recruited con- secutively. All subjects were evaluated for the presence of stressful events (ICU) with test Coddington Life Events Scales (CLES). The control group consists of 98 typically developing children (65 males, 33 females) (p = 0.855) (mean 11.3 years; SD ± 1.85; p = 0.594).
Results: Individuals with enuresis do not show a significant difference in the prevalence of stressful events than the control group (42.85% vs 41.83%; Chi-square = 0.002; p = 0,963) (table 1).
Conclusions: These results for the first time show that PMNE can be regarded as an independent state by stress factors, sugge- sting that it itself represents a stress factor that can affect the proper psychological and neuropsychological development in children.
primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis, PMNE; Coddington Life Events Scales, life adverse events.